Radiographic severity index in COVID-19 pneumonia: relationship to age and sex in 783 Italian patients

Radiol Med. 2020 May;125(5):461-464. doi: 10.1007/s11547-020-01202-1. Epub 2020 May 1.

Abstract

Purpose: To improve the risk stratification of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an experimental chest X-ray (CXR) scoring system for quantifying lung abnormalities was introduced in our Diagnostic Imaging Department. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate correlations between the CXR score and the age or sex of Italian patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Materials and methods: Between March 4, 2020, and March 18, 2020, all CXR reports containing the new scoring system were retrieved. Only hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. For each patient, age, sex, and the CXR report containing the highest score were considered for the analysis. Patients were also divided into seven groups according to age. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to examine the relationship between the severity of lung disease and the age or sex.

Results: 783 Italian patients (532 males and 251 females) with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. The CXR score was significantly higher in males than in females only in groups aged 50 to 79 years. A significant correlation was observed between the CXR score and age in both males and females. Males aged 50 years or older and females aged 80 years or older with coronavirus disease 2019 showed the highest CXR score (median ≥ 8).

Conclusions: Males aged 50 years or older and females aged 80 years or older showed the highest risk of developing severe lung disease. Our results may help to identify the highest-risk patients and those who require specific treatment strategies.

Keywords: COVID-19; Chest X-ray; SARS-CoV-2; Scoring system.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Betacoronavirus*
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / diagnostic imaging*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / diagnostic imaging*
  • Radiography, Thoracic
  • Retrospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Young Adult