Preoperative radiotherapy boosted by chemotherapy is a recommended treatment in locally advanced rectal cancers. This treatment is delivered by three dimensional conformal irradiation, which is usually well tolerated but can induce potential toxicity such as rectitis, cystitis and hematologic adverse effects. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, widely available nowadays, allows optimization of volume covering and sparing of organs at risk such as bladder and bone marrow. This review presents relevant clinical situations and requirements for a beneficial and safe preoperative irradiation of rectal cancers by intensity-modulated technique. This technique is compared to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy.
Keywords: Cancer; IMRT; Intensity-modulated radiotherapy; Preoperative treatment; RCMI; Rectum; Traitement préopératoire.
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