Candidate drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

Pharmacol Res. 2020 Jul;157:104859. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104859. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Abstract

Outbreak and pandemic of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in 2019/2020 will challenge global health for the future. Because a vaccine against the virus will not be available in the near future, we herein try to offer a pharmacological strategy to combat the virus. There exists a number of candidate drugs that may inhibit infection with and replication of SARS-CoV-2. Such drugs comprise inhibitors of TMPRSS2 serine protease and inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Blockade of ACE2, the host cell receptor for the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and inhibition of TMPRSS2, which is required for S protein priming may prevent cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Arbidol; COVID-19; Camostat; Chloroquine; Drugs; Favipiravir; Lopinavir; Phytochemicals; Remdesivir; Ritonavir; SARS-CoV-2.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Betacoronavirus / drug effects*
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / drug therapy*
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Coronavirus Infections / mortality
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / drug effects*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / drug therapy*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / mortality
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Serine Endopeptidases / drug effects*
  • Serine Proteinase Inhibitors / pharmacology

Substances

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Serine Proteinase Inhibitors
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • ACE2 protein, human
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2
  • Serine Endopeptidases
  • TMPRSS2 protein, human