Multi-view deep learning for rigid gas permeable lens base curve fitting based on Pentacam images

Med Biol Eng Comput. 2020 Jul;58(7):1467-1482. doi: 10.1007/s11517-020-02154-4. Epub 2020 May 3.


Many studies in the rigid gas permeable (RGP) lens fitting field have focused on providing the best fit for patients with irregular astigmatism, a challenging issue. Despite the ease and accuracy of fitting in the current fitting methods, no studies have provided a high-pace solution with the final best fit to assist experts. This work presents a deep learning solution for identifying features in Pentacam four refractive maps and RGP base curve identification. An authentic dataset of 247 samples of Pentacam four refractive maps was gathered, providing a multi-view image of the corneal structure. Scratch-based convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures and well-known CNN architectures such as AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and ResNet have been used to extract features and transfer learning. Features are aggregated through a fusion technique. Based on a comparison of means square error (MSE) of normalized labels, the multi-view scratch-based CNN provided R-squared of 0.849, 0.846, 0.835, and 0.834 followed by GoogLeNet, comparable with current methods. Transfer learning outperforms various scratch-based CNN models, through which proper specifications some scratch-based models were able to increase coefficient of determinations. CNNs on multi-view Pentacam images have enabled fast detection of the RGP lens base curve, higher patient satisfaction, and reduced chair time. Graphical abstract The Pentacam four refractive maps is learned by the proposed scratch-based and transfer learning-based CNN methodology. The deep network-based solutions enable identification of rigid gas permeable lens for patients with irregular astigmatism.

Keywords: Image analysis; Multi-view convolutional neural network; RGP lens base curve fitting; Transfer learning.

MeSH terms

  • Astigmatism
  • Contact Lenses*
  • Contact Lenses, Extended-Wear
  • Corneal Pachymetry
  • Deep Learning*
  • Humans
  • Neural Networks, Computer