Cooking Oil Consumption Is Positively Associated with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in a Chinese Nationwide Cohort Study

J Nutr. 2020 Jul 1;150(7):1799-1807. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxaa103.


Background: Evidence suggests that the relations between intakes of individual fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) vary. However, associations between intakes of different cooking oils as sources of fatty acids and incident T2D remain largely unknown.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate relations between intakes of individual cooking oils and incident T2D in a nationwide Chinese cohort.

Methods: Overall 15,022 Chinese adults aged ≥20 y from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) without self-reported T2D at entry in the 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, or 2009 rounds were followed up until 2011. Consumption of various cooking oils/fats including lard, peanut oil, soybean oil, canola oil, sesame oil, and refined blended plant oil was assessed using 3-d 24-h records in each survey and the cumulative mean intake was calculated. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed to estimate the HRs of T2D.

Results: A total of 1014 cases were recorded after a median follow-up of 14 y. The intakes of animal and plant cooking oils/fats were both associated with higher T2D risk. Compared with nonconsumers, multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for the highest tertiles were 1.31 (1.03, 1.67) for lard, 1.36 (1.10, 1.66) for peanut oil, 1.14 (0.91, 1.43) for soybean oil, 1.11 (0.87, 1.43) for canola oil, 1.02 (0.79, 1.32) for sesame oil, and 1.42 (1.12, 1.82) for refined blended plant oil. Substituting 1 tablespoon/d (8 g · 2000 kcal-1 · d-1) of soybean oil for the sum of lard, peanut oil, refined blended plant oil, and other plant oils was associated with a 3% (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99) lower risk of T2D.

Conclusions: Intakes of lard, peanut oil, and refined blended plant oil but not soybean oil, canola oil, and sesame oil are associated with higher T2D risk. Reducing the consumption of cooking oils in general may be protective against T2D among the Chinese population.This trial was registered at as NCT03259321.

Keywords: China Health and Nutrition Survey; animal fats; cooking oils; plant oils; type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asian People*
  • China
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cooking*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / chemically induced*
  • Diet
  • Dietary Fats*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Plant Oils*


  • Dietary Fats
  • Plant Oils
  • lard

Associated data