The clinical symptoms of prediabetes are mild and easy to overlook, but prediabetes may develop into diabetes if early intervention is not performed. In this study, a deep learning model-referred to as IGRNet-is developed to effectively detect and diagnose prediabetes in a non-invasive, real-time manner using a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) lasting 5 s. After searching for an appropriate activation function, we compared two mainstream deep neural networks (AlexNet and GoogLeNet) and three traditional machine learning algorithms to verify the superiority of our method. The diagnostic accuracy of IGRNet is 0.781, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) is 0.777 after testing on the independent test set including mixed group. Furthermore, the accuracy and AUC are 0.856 and 0.825, respectively, in the normal-weight-range test set. The experimental results indicate that IGRNet diagnoses prediabetes with high accuracy using ECGs, outperforming existing other machine learning methods; this suggests its potential for application in clinical practice as a non-invasive, prediabetes diagnosis technology.
Keywords: 12-lead ECG; deep learning; high-accuracy diagnosis; prediabetes.