Smart Electronic Eyedrop Bottle for Unobtrusive Monitoring of Glaucoma Medication Adherence

Sensors (Basel). 2020 Apr 30;20(9):2570. doi: 10.3390/s20092570.


Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness, affects >70 million people worldwide. Lowering intraocular pressure via topical administration of eye drops is the most common first-line therapy for glaucoma. This treatment paradigm has notoriously high non-adherence rates: ranging from 30% to 80%. The advent of smart phone enabled technologies creates promise for improving eyedrop adherence. However, previous eyedrop electronic monitoring solutions had awkward medication bottle adjuncts and crude software for monitoring the administration of a drop that adversely affected their ability to foster sustainable improvements in adherence. The current work begins to address this unmet need for wireless technology by creating a "smart drop" bottle. This medication bottle is instrumented with sensing electronics that enable detection of each eyedrop administered while maintaining the shape and size of the bottle. This is achieved by a thin electronic force sensor wrapped around the bottle and underneath the label, interfaced with a thin electronic circuit underneath the bottle that allows for detection and wireless transmission to a smart-phone application. We demonstrate 100% success rate of wireless communication over 75 feet with <1% false positive and false negative rates of single drop deliveries, thus providing a viable solution for eyedrop monitoring for glaucoma patients.

Keywords: Glaucoma; adherence; alerts; clinical decision support; internet of things; monitoring; sensors.

MeSH terms

  • Electronics
  • Glaucoma* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Medication Adherence*
  • Ophthalmic Solutions


  • Ophthalmic Solutions