Urinary Tract Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Issues

Anticancer Res. 2020 May;40(5):2439-2447. doi: 10.21873/anticanres.14213.


Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary tract is a high-grade neuroendocrine tumor with distinct pathological features, usually portending an aggressive clinical behavior in comparison to conventional urothelial carcinoma. Due to its low prevalence, little is known about its clinical management and there is no current standard of care. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge about LCNEC of the bladder, ureter and kidney, with relevance to diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues, through a systematic analysis of clinical, pathological and outcome data retrieved from the literature.

Keywords: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; bladder; kidney; review; ureter.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biopsy
  • Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis*
  • Carcinoma, Large Cell / etiology
  • Carcinoma, Large Cell / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis*
  • Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / etiology
  • Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Disease Management
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Multimodal Imaging
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urologic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Urologic Neoplasms / etiology
  • Urologic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Urologic Neoplasms / therapy*