Storage of Boar Semen at 16-18 °C in the Long-Term Commercial Extender Prepared With Deionized Water or Nanowater

Anim Reprod. 2019 Nov 18;16(4):864-870. doi: 10.21451/1984-3143-AR2019-0023.


The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of nanowater (NW; water declusterized using cold plasma treatment) as a diluent for a commercial boar semen extender during the 15-day storage (Days 1 to 15) at 16-18 °C. Ejaculates collected from 8 boars were subjected to the standard evaluation and then diluted in the extender prepared with deionized water (DW) or NW to a final concentration of 3×109 spermatozoa/ml. The proportion of defective spermatozoa increased (P<0.05) from Day 10 to Day 15 of storage (22.8±16.6% to 41.8±26.4% in DW group and 18.6±11.7% to 34.8±25.4% in NW group) and it was significantly greater in DW group compared with NW group on Days 5 and 10 due mainly to a greater (P<0.05) number of mid-piece defects in semen stored in the DW-containing extender. Sperm progressive motility decreased (P<0.05) in both groups between Days 2 and 6, Days 6 and 10, and Days 10 and 12, whereas the percentage of motile spermatozoa declined (P<0.05) to Day 14 only in NW group. Sperm motility was greater (P<0.05) in NW group compared with DW group from Day 5 to Day 13. A decline in sperm progressive motility below 40% in all semen samples occurred by Day 11 in DW group and by Day 12 in NW group. The mean survival time of sperm at 37 °C ex situ was greater in NW group than in DW group on Day 5 (314±87 min compared with 284±87 min) and Day 10 (223±34 min compared with 182±27 min; NW group compared with DW group, respectively). There were no differences (P>0.05) between the two groups in the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase in semen extender. To summarize, the use of NW as an extender diluent exerts cytoprotective effects on boar spermatozoa and delays a decline in sperm progressive motility.

Keywords: liquid storage; nanowater; pig; semen extender; sperm.

Grant support

Financial support: Mr. Z. Oszczęda is a co-founder and CEO of the Nantes Nanotechnology Systems Co. in Bolesławiec, Poland. The company co-funded the present study (in-kind contributions).The present study was also supported by a grant no. 12011310/ZKO/PB-R3 from the Polish National Center for Research and Development (TS, MM, JS); statutory funds (no. DS/ZHTChiDI/3242/15) of the Department of Swine and Small Animal Breeding, Cracow, Poland (TS, MMa, RT and JN); and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada (PMB).