Implications for the Multi-Disciplinary Management of Children With Craniofrontonasal Syndrome

J Craniofac Surg. 2020 Jun;31(4):e362-e368. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006367.


The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the genetic and phenotypic features of patients with craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS), and the implications of the condition for multidisciplinary management.The subjects were 25 female patients with a mutation of EFNB1, who presented to the Oxford Craniofacial Unit during a 38-year period. Medical records were reviewed for genetic and phenotypic information. Mean duration of follow-up was 12.6 years (range 0-30.7 years).This study examines neurodevelopment in constituent parts, with specific reference to speech, language, and cognition in relation to genotype. Three children had deletions extending beyond the EFNB1 gene; the 2 with available data presented with speech, language, or cognitive delay. The remaining 25 patients had intragenic mutations of EFNB1. Of these 25, those assessed in detail showed variable difficulties with speech and language development; 57% had receptive language difficulties (n = 4/7) and 88% had expressive language difficulties (n = 8/9). 55% presented with speech difficulties (n = 6/11). 2/3 patients with abnormal hearing had speech difficulties; 4/5 with normal hearing had normal speech development. Cognitive assessments indicated that IQ is variable; with full scale IQ ranging from 69 to 100.The complex, multifactorial presentation of patients with CFNS contributed to 41% (n = 7/17) of patients requiring additional educational support.Our results demonstrated significant multidisciplinary input is required, including Speech and Language Therapy, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Genetics, Ear, Nose and Throat, Maxillofacial, Orthodontic, Orthopaedic, Clinical Psychology and Orthoptic teams. The results of this study reinforce the importance of multi-disciplinary long-term follow-up of children with CFNS.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cognition
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities* / genetics
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities* / therapy
  • Ephrin-B1 / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Language Development
  • Male
  • Mutation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Speech Disorders / therapy
  • Speech Therapy
  • Young Adult


  • EFNB1 protein, human
  • Ephrin-B1

Supplementary concepts

  • Craniofrontonasal dysplasia