Bifidobacterium species are known to fulfill important functions within the human colon. Thus, stimulating the activity of bifidobacteria is important to maintain host health. We revealed that culture supernatants of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (referred to as C-3102) stimulated the growth of Bifidobacterium species. In this study, we isolated and identified six bifidogenic growth factors, which were cyclo (D-Val-D-Ile), cyclo (L-Val-D-Ile), cyclo (D-Val-L-Ile), cyclo (L-Val-L-Ile), cyclo (D-Val-L-Leu) and cyclo (L-Val-L-Leu). These six cyclic dipeptides increased the growth of Bifidobacterium species and had no effect on potentially harmful gut organisms. Moreover, supplementation with a mixture of these six cyclic dipeptides significantly increased the abundance of microorganisms related to the genus Bifidobacterium in a human colonic microbiota model culture system, although supplementation with a single type of dipeptide had no effect. These results show that cyclic dipeptides containing Val-Leu and Val-Ile produced by C-3102 could serve as bifidogenic growth factors in the gut microbial community.