Background: Bacteremia and endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), are challenging to treat and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibacterial active against susceptible Gram-positive pathogens, including MRSA.
Objective: This registry study assessed the real-world use and clinical outcomes of telavancin in patients with bacteremia or endocarditis enrolled in the Telavancin Observation Use Registry (TOUR™).
Methods: The subset of patients enrolled in TOUR who were diagnosed with endocarditis and/or bacteremia with a known or unknown primary source (N = 151) were analyzed. Data including demographics, infection type, baseline pathogens, prior or concomitant antimicrobial therapy, dosing regimen, clinical response, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) of interest, and mortality were collected by retrospective medical chart review.
Results: Telavancin was primarily used as a second-line or greater therapy (n = 132, 87.4%). MRSA was present in 87 (57.6%) patients. Median telavancin dose was 740.6 mg (interquartile range (IQR) 206.0 mg) and median duration of therapy was 9.0 days (IQR 24.0 days). Of the 132/151 (87.4%) patients with an available assessment at the end of telavancin therapy, a positive clinical response was achieved in 98/132 (74.2%), while 14/132 (10.6%) failed therapy and 20/132 (15.2%) had an indeterminant outcome. TEAEs occurred in 24 (15.9%) patients. The most frequent TEAE was renal failure (n = 12, 7.9%); seven of these patients were receiving concomitant nephrotoxic medications. There was no change in creatinine clearance for 67/89 (75.3%) patients with values recorded at the beginning and the end of telavancin therapy.
Conclusions: In real-world clinical practice, overall positive clinical outcomes are observed in patients with bacteremia or endocarditis treated with telavancin, including in those patients infected with MRSA or another S. aureus pathogen. Telavancin may be an alternative treatment option for these patients.
Trial registration: This trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02288234) on 11 November 2014.