Radiation Pneumonitis in Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiation Plus Durvalumab

Cancer Med. 2020 Jul;9(13):4622-4631. doi: 10.1002/cam4.3113. Epub 2020 May 6.

Abstract

Introduction: Durvalumab after concurrent chemoradiation (cCRT) is now standard of care for unresected stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there is limited data on radiation pneumonitis (RP) with this regimen. Therefore, we assessed RP and evaluated previously validated toxicity models in predicting for RP in patients treated with cCRT and durvalumab.

Methods: Patients treated with cCRT and ≥ 1 dose of durvalumab were evaluated to identify cases of ≥ grade 2 RP. The validity of previously published RP models was assessed in this cohort as well a reference cohort treated with cCRT alone. The timing and incidence of RP was compared between cohorts.

Results: In total, 11 (18%) of the 62 patients who received cCRT and durvalumab developed ≥ grade 2 RP a median of 3.4 months after cCRT. The onset of RP among patients treated with cCRT and durvalumab was significantly longer vs the reference cohort (3.4 vs 2.1 months; P = .01). Numerically more patients treated with cCRT and durvalumab developed RP than patients in the reference cohort (18% vs 9%, P = .09). Among patients treated with cCRT and durvalumab, 82% (n = 9) were responsive to treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids. Previously published RP models widely underestimated the rate of RP in patients treated with cCRT and durvalumab [AUC ~ 0.50; p(Hosmer-Lemeshow): 0.98-1.00].

Conclusions: Our data suggest a delayed onset of RP in patients treated with cCRT and durvalumab vs cCRT alone, and for RP to develop in a greater number of patients treated with cCRT and durvalumab. Previously published RP models significantly underestimate the rate of symptomatic RP among patients treated with cCRT and durvalumab.

Keywords: durvalumab; non-small cell lung cancer; radiation pneumonitis.