Bone tissue renewal can be outlined as a complicated mechanism centered on the interaction between osteogenic and angiogenic events capable of leading to bone formation and tissue renovation. The achievement or debacle of bone regeneration is focused on the primary role of vascularization occurrence; in particular, the turning point is the opportunity to vascularize the bulk scaffolds, in order to deliver enough nutrients, growth factors, minerals and oxygen for tissue restoration. The optimal scaffolds should ensure the development of vascular networks to warrant a positive suitable microenvironment for tissue engineering and renewal. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a main player in angiogenesis, is capable of provoking the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells and indirectly stimulating osteogenesis, through the regulation of the osteogenic growth factors released and through paracrine signaling. For this reason, we concentrated our attention on two principal groups involved in the renewal of bone tissue defects: the cells and the scaffold that should guarantee an effective vascularization process. The application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), an excellent cell source for tissue restoration, evidences a crucial role in tissue engineering and bone development strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the intimate connection between blood vessels and bone formation that appear during bone regeneration when MSCs, their secretome-Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) -and bone substitutes are used in combination.
Keywords: angiogenesis; bone regeneration; mesenchymal stem cells; osteogenesis; scaffold; wound healing.