Purpose: We aimed to characterize the association of dietary sugar intake with blood lipids and glucose-related markers in childhood.
Methods: Data from the multicentric European Childhood Obesity Project Trial were used. Three-day weighed dietary records were obtained at 8 years of age along with serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose, and insulin. Total sugar intake comprised all mono- and disaccharides; different sugar sources were defined. Linear regression models were applied to investigate the cross-sectional association of total sugar intake with blood lipids and glucose-related markers with adjustment for total energy intake using the residual method.
Results: Data were available for 325 children. Children consumed on average 332 kcal (SD 110) and 21% (SD 6) of energy from total sugar. In an energy-adjusted model, an increase of 100 kcal from total sugar per day was significantly associated with a z score HDL-C decrease (- 0.14; 95% CI - 0.01, - 0.27; p value = 0.031). Concerning different food groups of total sugar intake, 100 kcal total sugar from sweetened beverages was negatively associated with z score HDL-C (- 1.67; 95% CI - 0.42, - 2.91; p value = 0.009), while total sugar from milk products was positively related to z score HDL-C (1.38, 95% CI 0.03, 2.72; p value = 0.045). None of the other blood lipids or glucose-related markers showed a significant relationship with total sugar intake.
Conclusion: Increasing dietary total sugar intake in children, especially from sweetened beverages, was associated with unfavorable effects on HDL-C, which might increase the long-term risk for dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease.
Clinical trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00338689; Registered: June 19, 2006. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00338689?term=NCT00338689&rank=1.
Keywords: Blood lipids; Blood sugars; Children; HDL; Sugar intake.