The purpose of the present study was to review the existing data on preoperative nonmedical factors that are predictive of outcome in brain tumor surgery. Our hypothesis was that also the individual characteristics (e.g., emotional state, cognitive status, social relationships) could influence the postoperative course in addition to clinical factors usually investigated in brain tumor surgery. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched from 2008 to 2018 using terms relating to brain tumors, craniotomy, and predictors. All types of outcome were considered: clinical, cognitive, and psychological. Out of 6.288 records identified, 16 articles were selected for analysis and a qualitative synthesis of the prognostic factors was performed. The following nonmedical factors were found to be predictive of surgical outcomes: socio-demographic (age, marital status, type of insurance, gender, socio-economic status, type of hospital), cognitive (preoperative language and cognitive deficits, performance at TMT-B test), and psychological (preoperative depressive symptoms, personality traits, autonomy for daily activities, altered mental status). This review showed that nonmedical predictors of outcome exist in brain tumor surgery. Consequently, individual characteristics (e.g., emotional state, cognitive status, social relationships) can influence the postoperative course in addition to clinical factors.
Keywords: Brain tumor; Craniotomy; Outcome; Prediction.