Estimating Energy Cost of Body Weight Resistance Exercise Using a Multistage Exercise Test

J Strength Cond Res. 2022 May 1;36(5):1290-1296. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003622. Epub 2020 May 5.


Nakagata, T, Yamada, Y, and Naito, H. Estimating energy cost of body weight resistance exercise using a multistage exercise test. J Strength Cond Res 36(5): 1290-1296, 2022-The purpose of this study was to examine energy cost of body weight resistance exercises with slow movement in young men using a multistage exercise test. Fifteen men aged 21-29 years performed 3 exercises (heel-raise, squat, and push-up) at different frequencies (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 repetitions·min-1). Oxygen consumption was measured using indirect calorimetry; we then computed a simple linear regression between aerobic energy expenditure (EE) and repetition frequency. The slope coefficient in the regression represents the energy cost of those exercises; we compared the extrapolated EE for a frequency of 10 repetitions·min-1. Gross EE increased linearly with repetition frequency in all subjects (y = ax + b). Energy cost was significantly greater in the case of the push-up than in the case of the squat {squat: 0.50 ± 0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.58); push-up: 0.77 ± 0.20 kcal (95% CI, 0.66-0.88); and the heel-raise elicited the lowest energy cost: 0.13 ± 0.04 kcal (95% CI, 0.11-0.15)}. Extrapolated EE at 10 repetitions·min-1 was 2.7 ± 0.5 kcal (2.3 metabolic equivalents [METs]), 6.3 ± 1.4 kcal (5.4 METs), and 9.2 ± 2.1 kcal (7.8 METs), respectively, according to the regression based on aerobic EE. These results will be useful for health professionals in prescribing resistance exercise programs improving muscle fitness and considering for weight management.

MeSH terms

  • Body Weight / physiology
  • Calorimetry, Indirect
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology
  • Exercise / physiology
  • Exercise Test*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oxygen Consumption / physiology
  • Resistance Training* / methods