Imaging of toxocariasis

Adv Parasitol. 2020:109:165-187. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2020.03.001. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Abstract

Several imaging modalities have now been employed to visualize the manifestations of larval Toxocara infection in hepatic, neurologic, ocular, renal, and other anatomical sites. This report reviews the usefulness and value of these individual imaging methods in diagnosis and follow-up of the different cases causing eosinophilic (granulomatous) infiltrations the liver, lungs, brain, heart, and eyes. Imaging provides a means of assisting in diagnosis and management in this infection where diagnosis by biopsy is often unlikely to capture an actual larva for the purpose of making a definitive diagnosis on the basis of larval morphology or DNA detection.

Keywords: Contrast enhanced computed tomography (ceCT); Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ceMRI); Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS); Larva migrans; Positron emission tomography (PET); Toxocariasis; Toxocarosis; Ultrasound (US).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain / parasitology
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Eosinophilia / parasitology
  • Humans
  • Larva
  • Larva Migrans, Visceral / diagnosis
  • Larva Migrans, Visceral / diagnostic imaging
  • Larva Migrans, Visceral / pathology
  • Liver / diagnostic imaging
  • Liver / parasitology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Neuroimaging
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Toxocara
  • Toxocariasis / diagnosis
  • Toxocariasis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Toxocariasis / pathology
  • Ultrasonography