This chapter presents an overview of the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in Brazil and discusses how this zoonosis is studied, diagnosed, and treated in the Brazilian population. Toxocariasis in humans has a high prevalence in several regions of Brazil; however, this disease is neglected because of lack of knowledge, non-specific clinical signs, and difficult diagnosis. Most studies conducted in Brazil have estimated the prevalence of toxocariasis, i.e., the number of people who presented the disease at any given time. However, a few studies have determined disease incidence (number of new cases in a population at risk) and identified risk factors for Toxocara canis infection. Despite the high seroprevalence, the Brazilian population is not well aware of toxocariasis. Thus, the need of the hour is to raise awareness about this parasitic infection because of its worldwide distribution and potential health risk.
Keywords: Brazil; Epidemiological studies; Seroprevalence; Toxocara canis; Toxocariasis; Zoonosis.
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