Repeated exposure of pyriproxyfen to pregnant female mice causes developmental abnormalities in prenatal pups

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jul;27(21):26998-27009. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-08656-w. Epub 2020 May 8.


The continuous exposure to conventional pesticides leads to severe health and environmental issues especially at prenatal stage during developmental period. Herein, we aimed to investigate the anomalies due to repeated exposure of pyriproxyfen in pregnant female mice and their neonates. Twenty-four pregnant female mice were repeatedly administered with pyriproxyfen at 30, 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg by oral gauge from gestation day (GD) 7 to gestation day 17 and six females were given distilled water in the control group. All the live pups were euthanized at postnatal day (PND) 7 and their organs (heart, liver, kidney, and brain) were dissected out, weighed, and assessed for further histopathological examinations. The results exhibited a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the body weight gain of all treated pregnant mice in comparison to the controls and a significant increase in the gestational length was observed in group IV (P < 0.01) and group V (P < 0.001). In addition, no live pups were born in groups IV and V and one pregnant female mouse was also found dead in both treatments. The body weights of the pups were significantly decreased in group II (P < 0.05) and group III (P < 0.001) and the relative organ (liver, heart, and kidney) weight of the pups was increased significantly (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05) due to prenatal exposure in group II as compared to group I. The relative brain weights of the pups were decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in groups II and III as compared to group I. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain sections exhibited various histological alterations in groups II and III by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of the coronal sections of pup's brain showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in cortical radial thickness and total neural count in group II and III as compared to group I. Therefore, the prenatal exposure to pyriproxyfen provoked the damage to various organs in mice offspring and an increase in fetal death at higher doses.

Keywords: Cortical radial thickness; Deformities; Histopathology; NeuN+ cells; Pyriproxyfen; Repeated exposure.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Weight
  • Female
  • Kidney
  • Mice
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
  • Pyridines*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Vitamins


  • Pyridines
  • Vitamins
  • pyriproxyfen