Background: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with or without hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is indicated for patients with peritoneal dissemination of appendiceal cancer. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) before CRS-HIPEC remains controversial.
Methods: A retrospective review of adult patients who underwent CRS ± HIPEC for metastatic appendiceal cancer between 2000-2017 was performed. Patients who received NAC followed by surgery were compared with those who underwent surgery first (SF) with and without 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM).
Results: Among 803 patients with appendiceal cancer who underwent CRS ± HIPEC, 225 (28%) received NAC, and 578 (72%) underwent SF. After PSM (n = 186), median overall survival (OS) did not differ (NAC: 40 vs SF: 56 months; P = .210) but recurrence-free survival (RFS) was worse among patients who received NAC (14 vs 22 months; P = .007). NAC was independently associated with worse OS (hazards ratio [HR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.18) and RFS (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.25-2.99).
Conclusion: In this multi-institutional retrospective analysis of patients with peritoneal dissemination from appendiceal cancer, the use of NAC before CRS-HIPEC was associated with worse OS and RFS even after PSM and multivariable regression. Immediate surgery should be considered for patients with disease amenable to complete cytoreduction.
Keywords: appendiceal cancer; cytoreductive surgery; hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
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