Increasing Incidence of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020 Jun;29(6):1237-1245. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0107. Epub 2020 May 8.


Background: The incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) has been rising in the United States and is notably higher among white men. Previously, our group reported that rates were rising among Hispanic men in certain areas. This study sought to determine whether the patterns noted in our prior publication remained evident in more recent years and to determine whether any new patterns have emerged.

Methods: Data from 51 U.S. cancer registries were examined. Racial/ethnic-specific incidence rates per 100,000 man-years were calculated overall and by census region. Annual percent changes (APC) were estimated, and joinpoint models were fit. Differences in regional incidence were examined using the Wald test.

Results: During the time period 2001 to 2016, 126,575 TGCTs were recorded. TGCT incidence was highest among non-Hispanic whites (NHW; 6.63/100,000), followed by Hispanics (4.20), American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN; 3.27), Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PI; 1.72), and non-Hispanic blacks (NHB; 1.27). TGCT incidence increased significantly among all men; the greatest increase was experienced by A/PIs (APC: 2.47), followed in order by Hispanics (2.10), AI/ANs (1.71), NHBs (1.28), and NHWs (0.41). Significant differences in rates by region were seen for all men except NHBs, with the highest rates among Hispanics (5.38/100,000), AI/ANs (4.47), and A/PIs (2.37) found in the West, and among NHWs (7.60) and NHBs (1.51) found in the Northeast.

Conclusions: Although TGCT incidence remained highest among NHWs between 2001 and 2016, the greatest increase was experienced by A/PI men.

Impact: Rising rates of TGCTs among men of all racial/ethnic backgrounds in the United States suggest that future attention is warranted.