Background: Cigarette smoking is a frequent habit across blood donors (approx. 13% of the donor population), that could compound biologic factors and exacerbate oxidant stress to stored red blood cells (RBCs).
Study design and methods: As part of the REDS-III RBC-Omics (Recipient Epidemiology Donor Evaluation Study III Red Blood Cell-Omics) study, a total of 599 samples were sterilely drawn from RBC units stored under blood bank conditions at Storage Days 10, 23, and 42 days, before testing for hemolysis parameters and metabolomics. Quantitative measurements of nicotine and its metabolites cotinine and cotinine oxide were performed against deuterium-labeled internal standards.
Results: Donors whose blood cotinine levels exceeded 10 ng/mL (14% of the tested donors) were characterized by higher levels of early glycolytic intermediates, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, and pyruvate-to-lactate ratios, all markers of increased basal oxidant stress. Consistently, increased glutathionylation of oxidized triose sugars and lipid aldehydes was observed in RBCs donated by nicotine-exposed donors, which were also characterized by increased fatty acid desaturation, purine salvage, and methionine oxidation and consumption via pathways involved in oxidative stress-triggered protein damage-repair mechanisms.
Conclusion: RBCs from donors with high levels of nicotine exposure are characterized by increases in basal oxidant stress and decreases in osmotic hemolysis. These findings indicate the need for future clinical studies aimed at addressing the impact of smoking and other sources of nicotine (e.g., nicotine patches, snuff, vaping, secondhand tobacco smoke) on RBC storage quality and transfusion efficacy.
© 2020 AABB.