A familial case of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins: the clinicopathological features and unusual glomeruloid endothelial proliferation

Diagn Pathol. 2020 May 9;15(1):48. doi: 10.1186/s13000-020-00972-6.


Background: Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare disorder of pulmonary vascular abnormality with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. The symptom usually presents within hours after birth, leading to an early demise. Heterozygous de novo point mutations and genomic deletions of the FOXF1 (forkhead box F1) gene or its upstream enhancer have been identified in most patients with ACD/MPV. Most cases of ACD/MPV are sporadic; however, familial cases are also reported in 10% of patients.

Case presentation: We herein report a case of familial ACD/MPV that showed unusual glomeruloid proliferation of endothelial cells. In this family, three of the four siblings died within two to 3 days after birth because of persistent pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure. Only the second child remains alive and healthy. An autopsy was performed for the third and fourth children, resulting in a diagnosis of ACD/MPV based on the characteristic features, including misalignment of smaller pulmonary veins and lymphangiectasis. In both of these children, glomeruloid endothelial proliferation of vessels was noted in the interlobular septa. The vessels were immunohistochemically positive for D2-40, CD31, Factor VIII, and ERG, suggestive of differentiation for both lymphatic and blood vessels.

Conclusions: Unusual glomeruloid endothelial proliferation was observed in a familial ACD/MPV case. This histologic feature has not been described previously in ACD/MPV or any other pulmonary disease. Although the histogenesis of this histologic feature is unclear, this finding may suggest that ACD/MPV is a compound vascular and lymphovascular system disorder that exhibits various histologic features.

Keywords: Alveolar capillary dysplasia; Case report; FOXF1; Familial; Glomeruloid endothelial proliferation; Misalignment of pulmonary vein.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Endothelial Cells / pathology*
  • Female
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Mutation
  • Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome / genetics
  • Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome / pathology*


  • FOXF1 protein, human
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors