Decision-making and cognitive control in adolescent suicidal behaviors: a qualitative systematic review of the literature

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2021 Dec;30(12):1839-1855. doi: 10.1007/s00787-020-01550-3. Epub 2020 May 9.

Abstract

Suicide and suicidal behaviors represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during adolescence. While several lines of evidence suggest that suicidal behaviors are associated with risky decisions and deficient cognitive control in laboratory tasks in adults, comparatively less is known about adolescents. Here, we systematically reviewed the literature on the association between these neurocognitive variables and adolescent suicidal behaviors. The online search strategy identified 17 neurocognitive studies examining either cognitive control or decision-making processes in adolescents with past suicidal behaviors. Several studies have reported that adolescents with a history of suicidal behaviors present neuropsychological differences in the cognitive control (using Go/NoGo, suicide Stroop Test, continuous performance test, suicide/death Implicit Association Test), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, Cambridge Gambling Task, cost computation, delay discounting, loss aversion tasks) domains. Due to a lack of replication or conflicting findings, our systematic review suggests that no firm conclusion can be drawn as to whether altered decision-making or poor cognitive control contribute to adolescent suicidal behaviors. However, these results collectively suggest that further research is warranted. Limitations included scarcity of longitudinal studies and a lack of homogeneity in study designs, which precluded quantitative analysis. We propose remediating ways to continue neuropsychological investigations of suicide risk in adolescence, which could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and predictive markers, enabling early intervention in suicidal youth.

Keywords: Adolescence; Cognitive control; Decision-making; Neuropsychology; Risky behaviors; Suicide attempt.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cognition
  • Decision Making
  • Gambling*
  • Humans
  • Suicidal Ideation*
  • Suicide, Attempted