Phenotypes of Chronic Rhinosinusitis

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020 May;8(5):1505-1511. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2019.12.021.


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a complex heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and endotypes. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of CRS endotypes have led to the introduction of effective biologic agents for CRS management. Traditionally, CRS phenotypes have been divided into with or without nasal polyps depending on the presence of polyps. Although this classification does not reflect the various endotypes that are recently emerging, it is simple and easily recognized by clinicians. Other phenotypes of CRS are fungal rhinosinusitis (including invasive and noninvasive subtypes), infectious rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, cystic fibrosis, pediatric CRS, and CRS associated with systemic diseases. This article reviews the diagnostic approaches and up-to-date treatment strategies for each CRS phenotype with the hope that a better understanding of endotypes will result in a more scientific understanding of phenotypes and precise, personalized treatments.

Keywords: AERD; Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease; Chronic rhinosinusitis; Cystic fibrosis; Fungal rhinosinusitis; Nasal polyps.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Nasal Polyps* / diagnosis
  • Nasal Polyps* / therapy
  • Phenotype
  • Rhinitis* / diagnosis
  • Rhinitis* / therapy
  • Sinusitis* / diagnosis
  • Sinusitis* / therapy