Fungal and Parasitic Infections of the Liver

Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2020 Jun;49(2):379-410. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2020.01.009.


Hepatosplenic candidiasis and other fungal infections of the liver are uncommon in healthy individuals; however, high index of suspicion is essential in immunocompromised patients with prolonged fever. Parasitic infections are protozoan or helminthic; their distribution and epidemiology are variable among different world regions. Clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, fascioliasis, and ascariasis are helminthic infections that commonly involve the biliary systems. Signs and symptoms of cholangitis require prompt management to relieve biliary obstruction; addition of antihelminthic agents is essential. Parasitic infections are mostly transmitted to humans by fecally contaminated food and water. Proper hand and food sanitation measures are essential in preventing disease transmission.

Keywords: Fungi; Helminths; Immunocompromised; Parasites; Protozoa.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anthelmintics / therapeutic use
  • Ascariasis
  • Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde
  • Cholestasis / etiology
  • Cholestasis / therapy
  • Clonorchiasis
  • Fascioliasis
  • Fever
  • Helminthiasis* / complications
  • Helminthiasis* / parasitology
  • Helminthiasis* / therapy
  • Helminthiasis* / transmission
  • Hepatitis / microbiology*
  • Hepatitis / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Liver Diseases, Parasitic* / complications
  • Liver Diseases, Parasitic* / parasitology
  • Liver Diseases, Parasitic* / therapy
  • Liver Diseases, Parasitic* / transmission
  • Mycoses*
  • Opisthorchiasis


  • Anthelmintics