The Phenotypic and Genetic Spectrum of Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia in China

Mov Disord. 2020 Aug;35(8):1428-1437. doi: 10.1002/mds.28061. Epub 2020 May 11.


Background: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a spectrum of involuntary dyskinetic disorders with high clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 have been identified as the major pathogenic factor.

Objectives: We analyzed 600 paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia patients nationwide who were identified by the China Paroxysmal Dyskinesia Collaborative Group to summarize the clinical phenotypes and genetic features of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in China and to provide new thoughts on diagnosis and therapy.

Methods: The China Paroxysmal Dyskinesia Collaborative Group was composed of departments of neurology from 22 hospitals. Clinical manifestations and proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 screening results were recorded using unified paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia registration forms. Genotype-phenotype correlation analyses were conducted in patients with and without proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 mutations. High-knee exercises were applied in partial patients as a new diagnostic test to induce attacks.

Results: Kinesigenic triggers, male predilection, dystonic attacks, aura, complicated forms of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, clustering in patients with family history, and dramatic responses to antiepileptic treatment were the prominent features in this multicenter study. Clinical analysis showed that proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 mutation carriers were prone to present at a younger age and have longer attack duration, bilateral limb involvement, choreic attacks, a complicated form of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, family history, and more forms of dyskinesia. The new high-knee-exercise test efficiently induced attacks and could assist in diagnosis.

Conclusions: We propose recommendations regarding diagnostic criteria for paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia based on this large clinical study of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. The findings offered some new insights into the diagnosis and treatment of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and might help in building standardized paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia clinical evaluations and therapies. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

Keywords: PRRT2; diagnosis; genotype-phenotype correlation; paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia; treatment.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • China
  • Dystonia* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Phenotype


  • Nerve Tissue Proteins

Supplementary concepts

  • Familial paroxysmal dystonia