Polycystic kidney disease 2-like-1 (PKD2L1), also known as polycystin-L or TRPP3, is a non-selective cation channel that regulates intracellular calcium concentration. Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium binding protein, consisting of N-lobe and C-lobe with two calcium binding EF-hands in each lobe. In previous study, we confirmed that CaM is associated with desensitization of PKD2L1 and that CaM N-lobe and PKD2L1 EF-hand specifically are involved. However, the CaM-binding domain (CaMBD) and its inhibitory mechanism of PKD2L1 have not been identified. In order to identify CaM-binding anchor residue of PKD2L1, single mutants of putative CaMBD and EF-hand deletion mutants were generated. The current changes of the mutants were recorded with whole-cell patch clamp. The calmidazolium (CMZ), a calmodulin inhibitor, was used under different concentrations of intracellular. Among the mutants that showed similar or higher basal currents with that of the PKD2L1 wild type, L593A showed little change in current induced by CMZ. Co-expression of L593A with CaM attenuated the inhibitory effect of PKD2L1 by CaM. In the previous study it was inferred that CaM C-lobe inhibits channels by binding to PKD2L1 at 16 nM calcium concentration and CaM N-lobe at 100 nM. Based on the results at 16 nM calcium concentration condition, this study suggests that CaM C-lobe binds to Leu-593, which can be a CaM C-lobe anchor residue, to regulate channel activity. Taken together, our results provide a model for the regulation of PKD2L1 channel activity by CaM.
Keywords: Calcium; Calmodulin; Ion channel; Polycystic kidney; Transient receptor potential channels.