Objectives: To provide a comprehensive summary of the implications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on orthodontic treatment, contingency management, and provision of emergency orthodontic treatment, using currently available data and literature.
Materials and methods: Orthodontically relevant sources of information were searched using electronic databases including PubMed and Google Scholar and current reports from major health bodies such as Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, National Institutes of Health, and major national orthodontic associations.
Results: Where available, peer-reviewed and more recent publications were given priority. Due to the rapidly evolving nature of COVID-19 and limitations in quality of evidence, a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Relevant to orthodontics, human-to human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs predominantly through the respiratory tract via droplets, secretions (cough, sneeze), and or direct contact, where the virus enters the mucous membrane of the mouth, nose, and eyes. The virus can remain stable for days on plastic and stainless steel. Most infected persons experience a mild form of disease, but those with advanced age or underlying comorbidities may suffer severe respiratory and multiorgan complications.
Conclusions: During the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, elective orthodontic treatment should be suspended and resumed only when permitted by federal, provincial, and local health regulatory authorities. Emergency orthodontic treatment can be provided by following a contingency plan founded on effective communication and triage. Treatment advice should be delivered remotely first when possible, and where necessary, in-person treatment can be performed in a well-prepared operatory following the necessary precautions and infection prevention and control (IPAC) protocol.
Keywords: COVID-19; Contingency plan; Pandemic; SARS-CoV-2; Transmission.
© 0000 by The EH Angle Education and Research Foundation, Inc.
Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19).2020 Apr 6. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan–. StatPearls. 2020 Jan–. PMID: 32150360 Free Books & Documents. Review.
Focus on Receptors for Coronaviruses with Special Reference to Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 as a Potential Drug Target - A Perspective.Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2020 Apr 27. doi: 10.2174/1871530320666200427112902. Online ahead of print. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2020. PMID: 32338224
Detection of SARS-COV-2 in Placental and Fetal Membrane Samples.Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2020 May 8:100133. doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100133. Online ahead of print. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2020. PMID: 32391518 Free PMC article.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges.Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Mar;55(3):105924. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924. Epub 2020 Feb 17. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020. PMID: 32081636 Free PMC article.
Scientific research progress of COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 in the first five months.J Cell Mol Med. 2020 Apr 22:10.1111/jcmm.15364. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.15364. Online ahead of print. J Cell Mol Med. 2020. PMID: 32320516 Free PMC article. Review.