Background: Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are widely used techniques for the treatment of gastric epithelial dysplasia. Previous studies have compared the clinical outcome of endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer, but few studies have focused on gastric dysplasia alone. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term prognosis following endoscopic procedures for gastric epithelial dysplasia, investigate differences in local recurrence rates according to the treatment modality, and identify risk factors associated with local recurrence.
Methods: In this retrospective study, local recurrence rates and risk factors associated with local recurrence were compared between 599 patients who underwent EMR and 306 who underwent ESD for gastric epithelial dysplasia from January 2011 to December 2015.
Results: The en bloc resection rate (32.2% vs. 100%, p < 0.001) and complete resection rate (94.8% vs. 99.0%, p = 0.003) were significantly lower in the EMR group than in the ESD group. The local recurrence rate was significantly lower in the ESD group (1.3%) than in the EMR group (4.2%; p = 0.026). There was a significantly increased risk of local recurrence, regardless of lesion location or histologic grade, in patients with lesions > 2 cm (p = 0.002) or red in color (p = 0.03). The ESD group had a significantly lower local recurrence rate, with a higher complete resection rate, than that in the EMR group (p < 0.05). In the case of recurrence after endoscopic resection, most of the recurred lesions were removed through additional endoscopic procedures; there was no difference between the two groups (p = 0.153).
Conclusions: The complete resection rate was significantly higher, and the local recurrence rate was significantly lower, in patients with gastric epithelial dysplasia treated with ESD. Therefore, ESD should be considered the preferred treatment in patients with lesions > 2 cm or showing redness due to an increased risk of local recurrence and EMR may be possible for low-grade dysplasia that is less than 2 cm without surface changes such as redness, depression and nodularity.
Keywords: Endoscopic resection; Endoscopic treatment; Gastric dysplasia; Local recurrence.