The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is a ubiquitin ligase composed of the Heme-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase-1L (HOIL-1L), HOIL-1L-interacting protein (HOIP), and Shank-associated RH domain interactor (SHARPIN) subunits. LUBAC specifically generates the N-terminal Met1-linked linear ubiquitin chain and regulates acquired and innate immune responses, such as the canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon antiviral pathways. Deubiquitinating enzymes, OTULIN and CYLD, physiologically bind to HOIP and control its function by hydrolyzing the linear ubiquitin chain. Moreover, proteins containing linear ubiquitin-specific binding domains, such as NF-κB-essential modulator (NEMO), optineurin, A20-binding inhibitors of NF-κB (ABINs), and A20, modulate the functions of LUBAC, and the dysregulation of the LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitination pathway induces cancer and inflammatory, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, inhibitors of LUBAC would be valuable to facilitate investigations of the molecular and cellular bases for LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitination and signal transduction, and for potential therapeutic purposes. We identified and characterized α,β-unsaturated carbonyl-containing chemicals, named HOIPINs (HOIP inhibitors), as LUBAC inhibitors. We summarize recent advances in elucidations of the pathophysiological functions of LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitination and identifications of its regulators, toward the development of LUBAC inhibitors.
Keywords: LUBAC; NF-κB; inflammation; inhibitor; innate immune; interferon; ubiquitin.