Exercise training attenuates diabetes-induced cardiac injury through increasing miR-133a and improving pro-apoptosis/anti-apoptosis balance in ovariectomized rats

Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020 Jan;23(1):79-85. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2019.36731.8750.


Objectives: The useful and effective role of exercise program to prevent cardiac tissue apoptosis and fibrosis in ovariectomized type 2 diabetic (T2DM) rats (OVR.D) is well known. The current study aimed to investigate the simultaneous effects of T2DM and swimming plan on the expression of some apoptotic, anti-apoptotic biomarkers and glycogen changes in the cardiac muscle tissue of ovariectomized (OVR) rats.

Materials and methods: Forty rats were randomly sorted into 4 equal categories; sham, OVR, OVR.D and diabetic ovariectomized with an 8 week of swimming plan (OVR.D.E). Lipid profile and miR-133, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-8 levels were evaluated in the cardiac tissue.

Results: Ovariectomy significantly (P-value<0.05) increased cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, Bax, caspase-3, caspase-8 and decreased (P-value<0.05) HDL, miR-133, Bcl-2 in the cardiac tissue and a further reduction in the expression of miR-133, Bcl-2 and an enhancement in Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-8 in OVR.D rats was observed (P-value<0.01). However, exercise training significantly reversed all the measured parameters (P-value<0.05). Also, exercise training improved abnormal tissue structure, fragmentation and irregular form of glycogen granules in the OVR.D.E compared to OVR and OVR.D animals.

Conclusion: Exercise training could prevent the cardiac disturbance, enhance the expression of anti-apoptotic markers and decrease apoptotic biomarkers in the hearts of OVR.D animals. Therefore, based on the findings of this study suggested using the exercise's beneficial effects for prevention of the cardiac cell death in OVR.D animals.

Keywords: Apoptosis regulatory-proteins; Caspase-3; Caspase-8; Diabetes mellitus; MicroRNAs; Type 2.