An effective and stable quantitative resistance locus, QSc.VR4, was fine mapped, characterized and physically anchored to the short arm of 4H, conferring adult plant resistance to the fungus Rhynchosporium commune in barley. Scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune is one of the most destructive barley diseases worldwide. Accumulation of adult plant resistance (APR) governed by multiple resistance alleles is predicted to be effective and long-lasting against a broad spectrum of pathotypes. However, the molecular mechanisms that control APR remain poorly understood. Here, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of APR and fine mapping were performed on five barley populations derived from a common parent Vlamingh, which expresses APR to scald. Two QTLs, designated QSc.VR4 and QSc.BR7, were detected from a cross between Vlamingh and Buloke. Our data confirmed that QSc.VR4 is an effective and stable APR locus, residing on the short arm of chromosome 4H, and QSc.BR7 derived from Buloke may be an allele of reported Rrs2. High-resolution fine mapping revealed that QSc.VR4 is located in a 0.38 Mb genomic region between InDel markers 4H2282169 and 4H2665106. The gene annotation analysis and sequence comparison suggested that a gene cluster containing two adjacent multigene families encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase-like proteins (LRR-RLKs) and germin-like proteins (GLPs), respectively, is likely contributing to scald resistance. Adult plant resistance (APR) governed by QSc.VR4 may confer partial levels of resistance to the fungus Rhynchosporium commune and, furthermore, be an important resource for gene pyramiding that may contribute broad-based and more durable resistance.