Restoration of lysosomal function after damage is accompanied by recycling of lysosomal membrane proteins

Cell Death Dis. 2020 May 14;11(5):370. doi: 10.1038/s41419-020-2527-8.


Lysosomes are central organelles for cellular degradation and energy homeostasis. In addition, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and subsequent release of lysosomal content to the cytosol can initiate programmed cell death. The extent of LMP and available repair mechanisms determine the cell fate after lysosomal damage. In this study, we aimed to investigate the premises for lysosomal membrane repair after LMP and found that lysosomal membrane damage initiated by L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLOMe) caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in almost 50% of the cells, while the rest recovered. Immediately after LLOMe addition, lysosomal proteases were detected in the cytosol and the ESCRT-components ALIX and CHMP4B were recruited to the lysosomal membrane. Next, lysophagic clearance of damaged lysosomes was evident and a concentration-dependent translocation of several lysosomal membrane proteins, including LAMP2, to the cytosol was found. LAMP2 was present in small vesicles with the N-terminal protein chain facing the lumen of the vesicle. We conclude that lysophagic clearance of damaged lysosomes results in generation of lysosomal membrane protein complexes, which constitute small membrane enclosed units, possibly for recycling of lysosomal membrane proteins. These lysosomal membrane complexes enable an efficient regeneration of lysosomes to regain cell functionality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis / physiology*
  • Autophagy / physiology
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cell Membrane Permeability / physiology
  • Cytosol / metabolism
  • Homeostasis / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Membranes / metabolism*
  • Intracellular Membranes / physiology
  • Lysosomal Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Lysosomes / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology


  • Lysosomal Membrane Proteins