Stimulation of the immune response after vaccination can occasionally result in adverse effects, including demyelination of the central nervous system. The most common presentation of postvaccination demyelination is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, but cases of optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, and multiple sclerosis relapses have been reported. More recently, an increasing number of postvaccination neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) cases have surfaced in the literature, especially in patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies. In this article, we report an unusual case of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-related NMOSD after the receipt of multiple vaccines in a first-trimester pregnant woman from Africa. We review the reported cases of postvaccination demyelination in the past decade, with a focus on the relationship between NMOSD and vaccination in patients with aquaporin-4 or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies. Finally, we discuss the clinical relevance of the present case and similar reported cases as it relates to patient care in the neuroimmunology clinic and identify potential areas for future research.
Keywords: Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG); Multiple sclerosis (MS); Neuromyelitis optica.
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