In diabetic hypercholesterolemic rabbits at plasma triglyceride concentrations of approximately 5000 mg/dl, 55% of plasma cholesterol (1400 mg/dl) was in lipoproteins with diameters larger than 75 nm (Sf greater than 400), 40% in smaller very low density and intermediate density lipoproteins, 4% in low density lipoproteins, and 1% in high density lipoproteins. Specific intimal clearance (nl/h.mg aortic cholesterol) of the giant Sf greater than 400 lipoproteins was about 4% of that of the low density lipoproteins. The data suggest that even very low density lipoproteins with diameters smaller than 75 nm were practically excluded from entering the arterial wall. Specific intimal clearance of low density lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic, diabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits was similar to that in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits, but low density lipoprotein concentrations in diabetic rabbits were low. Thus, at plasma triglyceride concentrations of approximately 5000 mg/dl, only 5% of plasma cholesterol may be readily available for infiltration of arteries. These results add further support to the hypothesis that hypertriglyceridemic, diabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits are protected against atherogenesis because the major part of plasma cholesterol is carried in large lipoproteins to which the artery is not very permeable.