Introduction: Neurological diseases can be due to direct diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS) or be a bystander syndrome of systemic diseases. Treatment options depend on the cause. Toxic, metabolic and nutritional, and immune-mediated consequences of clinically occult neoplasms produce a spectrum of neurological diseases, recognition of which has therapeutic and prognostic importance.
Patients and methods: Children, as well as adults who presented to the authors in the last 5 years with neurological diseases and later their diseases could be diagnosed or attributed to neoplasms which were occult, were included for the study.
Observation: 28 patients were seen by the authors in the last 5 years with neurological manifestation and hidden tumor. Maximum incidence was in the age of above 60 years followed by the age group of 21-40 years. The commonest neurological presentation was muscle and nerve in adults and seizure in children.
Discussion: Short duration, rapid progression, severe weight loss, and poor response to treatment given for nontumor associated neurological syndrome are the red flags which point to the diagnosis.
Conclusion: Seizures and psychosis formed the commonest features in children, muscle and nerve in adults. Short duration, rapid progression, and resistance to treatment are the markers for possible underlying neoplasm.
Keywords: Mass lesions; TRIAD; prognostic and therapeutic relevance; treatment-resistant neurology.