The PIDDosome is a multiprotein complex that drives activation of caspase-2, an endopeptidase originally implicated in apoptosis. Yet, unlike other caspases involved in cell death and inflammation, caspase-2 seems to exert additional versatile functions unrelated to cell death. These emerging roles range from control of transcription factor activity to ploidy surveillance. Thus, caspase-2 and the PIDDosome act as a critical regulatory unit controlling cellular differentiation processes during organogenesis and regeneration. These newly established functions of the PIDDosome and its downstream effector render its components attractive targets for drug-development aiming to prevent fatty liver diseases, neurodegenerative disorders or osteoporosis.