Background & aims: There is controversy over the association between celiac disease (CeD) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess evidence for an association between CeD and IBD.
Methods: We searched databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, CINAHL, DARE, and SIGLE through June 25, 2019 for studies assessing the risk of CeD in patients with IBD, and IBD in patients with CeD, compared with controls of any type. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to evaluate the risk of bias and GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence.
Results: We identified 9791 studies and included 65 studies in our analysis. Moderate certainty evidence found an increased risk of CeD in patients with IBD vs controls (risk ratio [RR] 3.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23-7.02) and increased risk of IBD in patients with CeD vs controls (RR 9.88; 95% CI 4.03-24.21). There was low-certainty evidence for the risk of anti-Saccharomyces antibodies, a serologic marker of IBD, in patients with CeD vs controls (RR 6.22; 95% CI 2.44-15.84). There was low-certainty evidence for no difference in risk of HLA-DQ2 or DQ8 in patients with IBD vs controls (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.42-2.56), and very low-certainty evidence for an increased risk of anti-tissue transglutaminase in patients with IBD vs controls (RR 1.52; 95% CI 0.52-4.40). Patients with IBD had a slight decrease in risk of anti-endomysial antibodies vs controls (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.18-2.74), but these results are uncertain.
Conclusions: In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found an increased risk of IBD in patients with CeD and increased risk of CeD in patients with IBD, compared with other patient populations. High-quality prospective cohort studies are needed to assess the risk of CeD-specific and IBD-specific biomarkers in patients with IBD and CeD.
Keywords: Autoimmune and Immune-Mediated Comorbidities; Crohn’s Disease; Gluten; Ulcerative Colitis.
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