Chronic Immune Activation in TB/HIV Co-infection

Trends Microbiol. 2020 Aug;28(8):619-632. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2020.03.015. Epub 2020 Apr 22.


HIV co-infection is the most critical risk factor for the reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). While CD4+ T cell depletion has been considered the major cause of HIV-induced reactivation of LTBI, recent work in macaques co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) suggests that cytopathic effects of SIV resulting in chronic immune activation and dysregulation of T cell homeostasis correlate with reactivation of LTBI. This review builds on compelling data that the reactivation of LTBI during HIV co-infection is likely to be driven by the events of HIV replication and therefore highlights the need to have optimum translational interventions directed at reactivation due to co-infection.

Keywords: Mtb; SIV; chronic immune activation; co-infection; nonhuman primates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Coinfection / immunology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV Infections / pathology
  • Humans
  • Latent Tuberculosis / immunology*
  • Latent Tuberculosis / microbiology
  • Latent Tuberculosis / pathology
  • Lymphocyte Depletion
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis / immunology*
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology*
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / immunology*