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Review
. 2020 May 11;254:117775.
doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117775. Online ahead of print.

A Systematic Review on Use of Aminoquinolines for the Therapeutic Management of COVID-19: Efficacy, Safety and Clinical Trials

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Free PMC article
Review

A Systematic Review on Use of Aminoquinolines for the Therapeutic Management of COVID-19: Efficacy, Safety and Clinical Trials

Vaishali M Patil et al. Life Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Recent global outbreak of the pandemic caused by coronavirus (COVID-19) emphasizes the urgent need for novel antiviral therapeutics. It can be supplemented by utilization of efficient and validated drug discovery approaches such as drug repurposing/repositioning. The well reported and clinically used anti-malarial aminoquinoline drugs (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) have shown potential to be repurposed to control the present pandemic by inhibition of COVID-19. The review elaborates the mechanism of action, safety (side effects, adverse effects, toxicity) and details of clinical trials for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to benefit the clinicians, medicinal chemist, pharmacologist actively involved in controlling the pandemic and to provide therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 infection.

Keywords: Aminoquinolines; Anti-viral mechanism; COVID-19; Chloroquine; Hydroxychloroquine; Safety.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of competing interest Authors declare no potential conflict of interest.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Global COVID-19 spread showing number of confirmed cases (blue color) (as on 20 April 2020, 8:43 pm). (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Examples of drug repurposing for viral inhibition [[13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34], [35], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45], [46], [47], [48], [49], [50], [51], [52], [53], [54], [55], [56], [57], [58], [59], [60], [61], [62], [63], [64], [65], [66], [67], [68], [69], [70], [71], [72], [73], [74], [75], [76], [77], [78], [79], [80], [81], [82], [83], [84], [85], [86], [87], [88], [89], [90]].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Chemical structures of (a) Chloroquine and (b) Hydroxychloroquine.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Proposed mechanism of action for aminoquinolines (CQ: Chloroquine; RdRp: RNA dependent RNA polymerase; Green color arrow: names; Red color arrow: Zn2+ ionophore action of CQ; Blue color arrow: COVID-19 entry into host cell, endosome and lysosome; X: Site of action for CQ). (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

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