Background and aims: The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown. We sought to characterize the clinical course of COVID-19 among patients with IBD and evaluate the association among demographics, clinical characteristics, and immunosuppressant treatments on COVID-19 outcomes.
Methods: Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) is a large, international registry created to monitor outcomes of patients with IBD with confirmed COVID-19. We calculated age-standardized mortality ratios and used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with severe COVID-19, defined as intensive care unit admission, ventilator use, and/or death.
Results: 525 cases from 33 countries were reported (median age 43 years, 53% men). Thirty-seven patients (7%) had severe COVID-19, 161 (31%) were hospitalized, and 16 patients died (3% case fatality rate). Standardized mortality ratios for patients with IBD were 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-2.6), 1.5 (95% CI, 0.7-2.2), and 1.7 (95% CI, 0.9-2.5) relative to data from China, Italy, and the United States, respectively. Risk factors for severe COVID-19 among patients with IBD included increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02), ≥2 comorbidities (aOR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.8), systemic corticosteroids (aOR, 6.9; 95% CI, 2.3-20.5), and sulfasalazine or 5-aminosalicylate use (aOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.7). Tumor necrosis factor antagonist treatment was not associated with severe COVID-19 (aOR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4-2.2).
Conclusions: Increasing age, comorbidities, and corticosteroids are associated with severe COVID-19 among patients with IBD, although a causal relationship cannot be definitively established. Notably, tumor necrosis factor antagonists do not appear to be associated with severe COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19; Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Ulcerative Colitis.
Copyright © 2020 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.