Transcending The Cutaneous Barrier Through Nanocarrier Exploration For Passive Delivery Of Antihypertensive Drugs A Critical Review

Recent Pat Nanotechnol. 2020 May 18. doi: 10.2174/1872210514666200519071734. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Hypertension comes under the category of chronic disease which requires long term treatment. Hypertension is usually treated by oral administration of various therapeutic agents. There are several limitations of oral route making pharmaceutical scientists to discover an alternative route for drug delivery. Transdermal route may be a better alternative as it shows various advantages like lack of first pass effect and high patient compliance. Skin may act as a primary barrier for transdermal delivery of antihypertensive drugs therefore new approaches are required to cross this barrier. Nanocarrier systems come under these new approaches to cross skin barrier. Various nanocarrier systems explored for transdermal delivery of antihypertensive drugs are liposomes, elastic liposomes, ethosomes, transethosomes, oleic acid vesicles, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions/microemulsions, and carbon nanotubes.

Objectives: This review summarizes potential of advanced nanocarrier systems in effective management of hypertension following transdermal route. The entire literature search regarding utility of nanocarrier systems in transdermal delivery of antihypertensive drugs was done by using Pubmed and Google Scholar.

Conclusion: Nanocarrier systems are capable to reduce various drawbacks of conventional formulations of antihypertensive drugs like excessive first pass effects, high dosing frequency, and toxicity promoting high patient compliance. However, clinical efficacy determination of such nanocarrier systems is still a challenge and it will govern their presence in global pharmaceutical market.

Keywords: Conventional; First pass effect; Nanocarrier; Niosomes; Patient compliance; Transdermal.