This paper studied the relationship between personality traits and mental health conditions of medical personnel to provide a basis and reference for the implementation of targeted education on mental health. A self-report inventory, the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), was used to investigate the mental health status of 548 medical personnel dealing with the new coronavirus pneumonia in eight provinces and cities of China. The overall mean SCL-90 score and mean values of factors (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and psychoticism) of the medical personnel were significantly higher than in the norm group (p < 0.05), while their average interpersonal sensitivity score was significantly lower (p < 0.01). In addition, personal factors affecting the mental health status of medical personnel were identified (all p < 0.05). The overall mental health status of medical personnel responding to new coronavirus pneumonia is generally higher than that of the norm group in China. The results of this study should contribute to measures to alleviate the psychological pressures on medical personnel dealing with the new coronavirus epidemic in China.