Background: Satoyoshi syndrome (SS) [OMIM 600705; ORFHA 3130] is a multisystemic disease with a probable autoimmune basis, whose main symptoms are muscle spasms, alopecia, diarrhea and skeletal alterations. Chronic diarrhea may be severe and result in malnutrition, anemia, growth retardation, cachexia, disability and even death. However, to date, no review of the digestive symptoms has been carried out.
Methods: A search was performed in MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Cases of SS, without language or date restrictions, were recorded. Sixty-seven cases of SS were found up until December 2019. Thirty-nine cases described gastrointestinal manifestations.
Results: Chronic diarrhea was the main digestive symptom (92.3%). Other symptoms such as abdominal pain (15.4%), nausea (7.7%) and vomiting (7.7%), were less frequent. The D-xylose test was positive in 10 out of 12 patients, and 9 out of 13 cases showed a flattened oral glucose tolerance test suggesting carbohydrate malabsorption. Antinuclear antibodies were detected in 8 out of 16 cases. Antibodies to stomach or duodenum tissue lysates were also detected by Western blot. Histological data revealed predominantly lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate that can affect any section of the digestive tract. In 6 out of 10 patients, diarrhea improved with a treatment regimen that included corticosteroids. Other treatments, such as methotrexate, carbohydrate restricted diets or otilonium bromide, improved digestive symptoms in isolated patients. Improvement of symptoms up to three years of follow-up has been described. None of the three patients who died had received corticosteroids or immunosuppressants.
Conclusion: Chronic diarrhea with malabsorption is one of the most disabling symptoms in SS. The early recognition of this disease is essential for immunosuppressive treatment and a better outcome.
Keywords: Diarrhea; Malabsorption; Rare diseases; Satoyoshi syndrome.