Influence of femoral morphology and canal fill ratio on early radiological and clinical outcomes of uncemented total hip arthroplasty using a fully coated stem

Bone Joint Res. 2020 May 16;9(4):182-191. doi: 10.1302/2046-3758.94.BJR-2019-0149.R2. eCollection 2020 Apr.

Abstract

Aims: The diversity of femoral morphology renders femoral component sizing in total hip arthroplasty (THA) challenging. We aimed to determine whether femoral morphology and femoral component filling influence early clinical and radiological outcomes following THA using fully hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated femoral components.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of 183 primary uncemented THAs. Femoral morphology, including Dorr classification, canal bone ratio (CBR), canal flare index (CFI), and canal-calcar ratio (CCR), were calculated on preoperative radiographs. The canal fill ratio (CFR) was calculated at different levels relative to the lesser trochanter (LT) using immediate postoperative radiographs: P1, 2 cm above LT; P2, at LT; P3, 2 cm below LT; and D1, 7 cm below LT. At two years, radiological femoral component osseointegration was evaluated using the Engh score, and hip function using the Postel Merle d'Aubigné (PMA) and Oxford Hip Score (OHS).

Results: CFR was moderately correlated with CCR at P1 (r = 0.44; p < 0.001), P2 (r = 0.53; p < 0.001), and CFI at P1 (r = - 0.56; p < 0.001). Absence of spot welds (n = 3, 2%) was associated with lower CCR (p = 0.049), greater CFI (p = 0.017), and lower CFR at P3 (p = 0.015). Migration (n = 9, 7%) was associated with lower CFR at P2 (p = 0.028) and P3 (p = 0.007). Varus malalignment (n = 7, 5%), predominantly in Dorr A femurs (p = 0.028), was associated with lower CFR at all levels (p < 0.05). Absence of spot welds was associated with lower PMA gait (p = 0.012) and migration with worse OHS (p = 0.032).

Conclusion: This study revealed that femurs with insufficient proximal filling tend to have less favourable radiological outcomes following uncemented THA using a fully HA-coated double-tapered femoral component.Cite this article: Bone Joint Res. 2020;9(4):182-191.

Keywords: Canal fill ratio; Femoral morphology; Filling; Fully coated stem; Osteointegration; Total hip arthroplasty.