Assessing Genomic Copy Number Alterations as Best Practice for Renal Cell Neoplasia: An Evidence-Based Review from the Cancer Genomics Consortium Workgroup

Cancer Genet. 2020 Jun:244:40-54. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2020.04.004. Epub 2020 May 1.

Abstract

Renal cell neoplasia are heterogeneous with diverse histology, genetic alterations, and clinical behavior that are diagnosed mostly on morphologic features. The Renal Cell Neoplasia Workgroup of the Cancer Genomics Consortium systematically evaluated peer-reviewed literature on genomic studies of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), including clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, and the translocation RCC involving TFE3, TFEB and MITF rearrangements, as well as benign oncocytoma, which together comprise about 95% of all renal cell neoplasia. The Workgroup curated recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs), copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity (cnLOH), rearrangements, and mutations, found in each subtype and assigned clinical relevance according to established criteria. In clear cell RCC, loss of 3p has a disease-initiating role and most likely also in progression with mutations detected in VHL and other genes mapped to this arm, and loss of 9p and/or 14q has well-substantiated prognostic utility. Gain of chromosomes 7 and 17 are hallmark CNAs of papillary RCC, but patterns of other CNAs as detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) afford sub-classification into Type 1 and 2 with prognostic value, and for further sub-stratification of Type 2. Inherent chromosome loss in chromophobe RCC as detected by CMA is useful for distinguishing the eosinophilic variant from benign oncocytoma which in contrast exhibits few CNAs or rearranged CCND1, but share mitochondrial DNA mutations. In morphologically atypical RCCs, rearrangement of TFE3 and TFEB should be considered in the differential diagnosis, portending an aggressive RCC subtype. Overall, this evidence-based review provides a validated role for assessment of CNAs in renal cell neoplasia in the clinical setting to assist in renal cell neoplasm diagnosis and sub-classification within subtypes that is integral to the management of patients, from small incidentally found renal masses to larger surgically resected specimens, and simultaneously identify the presence of key alterations portending outcome in malignant RCC subtypes.

Keywords: Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA); Clinical utility; Copy number alterations (CNAs); Kidney tumor; Loss of heterozygosity; Renal cell carcinoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology*
  • DNA Copy Number Variations*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Evidence-Based Medicine*
  • Genomics / methods*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Neoplasms / genetics
  • Kidney Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Prognosis