A 5-year experience characterizing the demographic and clinical profile and directly observed treatment short-course treatment outcome in National Tuberculosis Center of Duhok province, Iraqi Kurdistan

SAGE Open Med. 2020 May 12;8:2050312120921055. doi: 10.1177/2050312120921055. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Background: The objectives were to describe the demographic and clinical profile and treatment outcomes in the National Tuberculosis Program Center of Duhok governorate.

Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study of all forms of drug-susceptible tuberculosis cases in the National Tuberculosis Program Center of Duhok. The Electronic Nominal Recording Reporting System data of tuberculosis cases were reviewed during 2014-2018. Information on the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of the patients were analyzed. Tuberculosis trends and treatment outcomes were determined.

Results: A total of 1063 tuberculosis patients visited the National Tuberculosis Program Center, of whom 905 were from Duhok. The estimated tuberculosis notification rate per 100,000 people in Duhok governorate was 14.06, 16.16, 10.43, 11.05, and 10.34 for the years 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018, respectively. The most affected age group was 15-24 years. The male cases were predominant. Most patients (97.3%) were native Iraqi. There were 718 (67.5%) pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 345 (32.5%) extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases; tuberculosis lymphadenitis was the most common presentation. The majority of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients were females aged 15-24 years (p = 0.019), and patients aged ⩾65 years were associated with pulmonary tuberculosis and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in males (p ⩽ 0.001). The highest tuberculosis incidence occurred in winter (288 patients). The patient treatment outcomes were as follows: 90.7% successful treatment, 1.6% lost to follow-up, 6.7% death, 0.3 transferred out, and 0.8 treatment failure.

Conclusion: There was a high frequency of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, which may reflect overestimation in its diagnosis. Therefore, meticulous evaluations should be provided. The treatment outcome was satisfactory in the center. Hence, we should maintain the favorable work to attain tuberculosis control objectives. Performing GeneXpert for all tuberculosis cases and introducing culture and drug susceptibility testing should be an urgent plan to strengthen the diagnosis of susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis cases.

Keywords: Duhok; Tuberculosis; demographic and clinical profile; treatment outcome.