The recent coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has underscored the need to move from traditional lab-centralized diagnostics to point-of-care (PoC) settings. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) platforms facilitate the translation to PoC settings via the miniaturization, portability, integration, and automation of multiple assay functions onto a single chip. For this purpose, paper-based assays and microfluidic platforms are currently being extensively studied, and much focus is being directed towards simplifying their design while simultaneously improving multiplexing and automation capabilities. Signal amplification strategies are being applied to improve the performance of assays with respect to both sensitivity and selectivity, while smartphones are being integrated to expand the analytical power of the technology and promote its accessibility. In this chapter, we review the main technologies in the field of LoC platforms for PoC medical diagnostics and survey recent approaches for improving these assays.
Keywords: Centrifugal microfluidics; Diagnostics; Lab-on-a-chip; Microfluidics; Paper; Point-of-care; Smartphone.
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